A number of people, organizations, and institutions have supported Finding Fernanda. Special thanks to the following:

And a big thanks to the 114 Kickstarter backers who chipped in a total of $5,050 to help defray international reporting costs: Sarah Bleviss, Ida C. Benedetto, Audacia Ray, Pearl Gabel, Kathleen Burton McDade, Jennifer Janisch, Brianna Cayo Cotter, Ruth Ann Harnisch, Jen Angel, Amanda Siegal, Kerry Weber, Dale Edmonds, Kelley Bunkers, Brook Cole, Aric Mayer, Juan Carlos Llorca, Renee Feltz, Lisa Jervis, Regina Pollack, C.W. Anderson, Jennifer Hemsley, Patrick Keaney, Caroline Dworin, Allison Harned, Lisa Mancini, Bryan Graham, Arun Gupta, Doug Henwood, J. Bill Chilton, Andrew Boyd, ananogger, Richard Siegal, Darren Hauck, Michael D. Yates, Mary Cuddehe, Jaime,  Angela Tosca, Nicholas Pinto, Aaron, John Kalonaros, Laura McIntyre, Craig Tyler, Eugenia and Victor Villagra, Nancy Johnson, the Diaz family, Andy Schmid, Anonymous, Aura Bogado, Laura Harris, Hilke Schellmann, S. Alfredo Cruz, Brandon Neubauer, Nathaniel Moore, Jasmine DeFoore, Jennifer MacFarlane, Claire Galli, Brett, Myles, Claire Pavlik Purgus, Kristina Puga, Ken Hawkins, Julie Mack, Eunice Lipton, Beth Barany, Carlos Pareja, Anita Kissee, Kelly Truax, Jordan Flaherty, Mik Kinkead, Zoe Holmes, Michael Au, Renee Dumas, Holly Wilmeth, Bonnie Castellani, Erin Lockward, Melanie Light, Emi Kane, Mikaela Conley, Anonymous, Jake Lawrence, Megan, Mac McClelland, Roninja, Michael Shaw, Tara Cook, Mike Dunshee, Te-Ping Chen, Suzanne Ma, Michael Fox, Lianne Milton, Teru Kuwayama, Sunny Bates, Marcy Klattenberg, Max Moraga, E.J. Graff, Rolando Sandor, Kate Bradley, Susan Sawyers, Jane Isay, Matthew Cassel, Tim Martens, Carolyn Toll Oppenheim, Jane Stevens, Jackie Bischof, Sharon Torres, Cathryn Ramin, Poco a Poco, Seth Herman, Jan Paschal, Mark Renehan, Krista Kennell, Bob Black, Carl Mastandrea, and Sapana Sakya.

Special thanks to a few anonymous adoptive parents in particular, who have provided tips, perspective, and hours of internet sleuthing out of a desire to help this project. They don’t want public acknowledgment, but they are certainly deserving of thanks.

END NOTES

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——. “Madre descubre que su hija fue adoptada por extranjeros.” La Prensa Libre, May 25, 2009. Accessed May 13, 2011. http://replay.web.archive.org/20090528200323/http://www.prensalibre.com/pl/2009/mayo/25/312319.html

——. “Intimidan a madre de tres niñas asesinadas.” La Prensa Libre, June 15, 2009. Accessed May 13, 2011. http://replay.web.archive.org/20090619202025/http://prensalibre.com/pl/2009/junio/16/321595.html

López, Olga, Claudia Munaiz, and Carlos Menocal. “Guatemala, país exportador de bebés.” La Prensa Libre, July 9, 2006. Accessed May 10, 2011. http://web.archive.org/web/20060816041318/www.prensalibre.com/pl/2006/julio/09/146417.html.

Loudis, Richard, Christina del Castillo, Anu Rajaraman, and Marco Castillo. “Central America and Mexico Gang Assessment, Annex 2: Guatemala Profile.” USAID, April 2006. Accessed May 13, 2011. http://www.usaid.gov/gt/docs/guatemala_profile.pdf

Lundy, Sarah. “Adoptive dad gets probation on son-abuse charge.” Orlando Sentinel, March 31, 2009. Accessed May 10, 2011. orlandosentinel.com/news/local/orl-locdadabuse31033109mar31,0,1114189.story.

Ma, Kelvin. “Adoption Crackdown Puts Valrico Family In Limbo.” The Tampa Tribune, October 11, 2007.

Manson, Pamela and Rosetta, Lisa. “Adoption scam defendants cut no-jail-time deal.” The Salt Lake Tribune, January 7, 2009. Accessed May 10, 2011. http://www.sltrib.com/portlet/article/html/fragments/print_article.jsp?articleId=11386108&siteId=297

Marroquin, Ericka. “Vacío legal frena adopciones: Rechazan 74% de Trámites de Adopción.” Siglo XXI. February 10, 2007.

Martínez, Ángeles Cruz. “Trámites y vacíos legales impiden la adopción de niños en el país.” La Jornana (Mexico). October 4, 2007. Accessed May 10, 2011. http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2007/10/04/index.php?section=sociedad&article=045n1soc

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Meier, Patricia J. and Xiaole Zhang. “SOLD INTO ADOPTION: THE HUNAN BABY TRAFFICKING SCANDAL EXPOSES VULNERABILITIES IN CHINESE ADOPTIONS TO THE UNITED STATES. Cumberland Law Review, October 25, 2008. http://www.ethicanet.org/MeierZhang.pdf Accessed August 10, 2011.

Melville, Kathleen. Guatemala Human Rights Commission. “Confronting Femicide in Guatemala.” September 7, 2006. Accessed May 10, 2011. http://www.ghrc-usa.org/

Miller, Carol Marbin. “State goes after records of adoptions.” The Miami Herald., December 25, 2003. Accessed August 11, 2011. http://sites.google.com/site/internationaladoptionfacts/costa-rica—state-goes-after-records-of-adoptions

Miller, Talea. “From the Field: Violence Against Women in Guatemala.” The Rundown on PBS NewsHour. February 7, 2011.

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Montt, José Efraín Ríos. “Guatemala coup leader’s broadcast to the nation.” BBC, March 25, 1982.

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——. “Detienen a médico, por adopción ilegal.” La Prensa Libre, July 27, 2008. Accessed August 26, 2011. http://replay.web.archive.org/20090327073441/http://www.prensalibre.com/pl/2009/marzo/24/303566.html

——. “Capturan a dos abogados por caso de adopción ilegal.” La Prensa Libre, May 14, 2009. Accessed August 26, 2011. http://www.prensalibre.com.gt/noticias/Capturan-abogados-caso-adopcion-ilegal_0_42595773.html

——. “Deportan de EE. UU. a mujer vinculada a adopciones ilegales.” La Prensa Libre, April 22, 2010. Accessed May 10, 2011. http://www.prensalibre.com/noticias/justicia/Llega-EE-UU-vinculada-adopciones_0_247775465.html.

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——. “Capturan a abogada sindicada de ser cabecilla de red de adopciones anómalas.” La Hora, December 16, 2009. Accessed May 10, 2011. http://www.lahora.com.gt/notas.php?key=59930&fch=2009-12-16

——. “Débil situación penal para la trata de personas en el país.” La Hora, March 1, 2010. Accessed May 10, 2011. http://www.lahora.com.gt/notas.php?key=63313&fch=2010-03-01

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PEAR (Parents for Ethical Adoption Reform). “Ethiopia: Best Practices Survey.” March 16-April 16, 2010.

Perera, Victor. Unfinished Conquest: The Guatemalan Tragedy. United States: University of California Press, 1995.

Pérez, Sonia. “Incertidumbre por destino de menor: Niño supuestamente secuestrado está en casa hogar.” La Prensa Libre, April 17, 2004. Accessed May 10, 2011. http://www.prensalibre.com/noticias/Incertidumbre-destino-menor_0_91791814.html

Permanent Bureau of the Hague. “Guide to Good Practice Under the Hague Convention of May 1993 on Protection of Children and Co-Operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption Implementation.” Hague Conference on International Private Law. August, 2005.

Pertman, Adam. Adoption Nation: How the Adoption Revolution Is Transforming America. United States: Basic Books, 2000.

Poe, Andrea C. “Not home for the holidays: A story of adoption in Guatemala.” The Washington Times, January 3, 2011.

Porter, Claire. “Norma Cruz Aims to Stop Femicide in Guatemala.” UPIP, News Wire, March 29, 2010. Accessed May 11, 2011. http://www.upiu.com/articles/norma-cruz-aims-to-stop-femicide-in-guatemala

Priest, Dana. “U.S. Instructed Latins on Executions, Torture.” The Washington Post, September 21, 1996.

“Programan indagatoria por tercera vez.” Siglo XII, July 4, 1998.

“Protestan por cierre de caso de adopción anómala.” La Prensa Libre, March 3, 2009. Accessed May 13, 2011. http://replay.web.archive.org/20090326075529/http://www.prensalibre.com/pl/2009/marzo/23/303676.html

“Retiran inmunidad a juez vinculado a adopciones ilegales.” La Hora, May 27, 2010. May 11, 2011. http://www.lahora.com.gt/notas.php?key=67538&fch=2010-05-27

Reynoso, Conié. “Se desploman las adopciones.” La Prensa Libre, September 9, 2009. http://www.prensalibre.com/pl/2009/septiembre/28/341040.html

Riben, Mirah. The Stork Market: America’s Multi-Billion Dollar Unregulated Adoption Industry. New Jersey: Advocate Publications, 2007.

Rohter, Larry. “Guatemala Election Becomes Vote on Former Dictator.” The New York Times, January 7, 1996.

Roig-Franzia, Manuel. “Killings on the Campaign Trail: 50 Guatemalan Candidates, Activists Have Died in Run-Up to Vote.” The Washington Post, September 9, 2007. Accessed May 10, 2011. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/09/08/AR2007090800704.html

Rosales, Carlos Castañaza. “Adopciones: 4,270 expedientes desde 1996.” Siglo XXI, June 5, 1998.

Rosenberg, Mica. “Cleaning Up International Adoptions.” TIME Magazine, August 29, 2007. Accessed May 10, 2011. http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,1657355,00.html

Rotabi, Karen Smith. “Guatemala City: Hunger Protests Amid Allegations of Child Kidnapping and Adoption Fraud.” SocMag, August 22, 2009. Accessed May 10, 2011. http://www.socmag.net/?p=540

——. “From Guatemala to Ethiopia: Shifts in Intercountry Adoption Leaves Ethiopia Vulnerable for Child Sales and Other Unethical Practices.” SocMag, June 8, 2010. Accessed May 11, 2011. www.socmag.net/?p=615&print=1

Ruhl, Katharine. “Guatemala’s Femicides and the Ongoing Struggle for Women’s Human Rights: Update to CGRS’s 2005 Report Getting Away With Murder.” The Center for Gender & Refugee Studies, University of California, Hastings College of the Law. September, 2006.

Russell, George and James Willwerth. “Guatemala: Surprise in the Sermon.” TIME Magazine, May 23, 1983. Accessed May 10, 2011. http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,953896,00.html

Sactic, Wálter. “Reconocen avances en proceso de adopciones.” La Prensa Libre, March 9, 2009. http://www.prensalibre.com/pl/2009/septiembre/08/339807.html

——. “Bajan adopciones.” La Prensa Libre, August 9, 2009. http://www.prensalibre.com/pl/2009/septiembre/10/340814.html

Samayoa, Claudia Virginia. “Front Line Guatemala: Ataques en Contra de Defensoras y Defensores de Derechos Humans 2000-2005.” Front Line and La Unidad de Protección de Defensores de Derechos Humanos del Movimiento por los Derechos Humanos, Guatemala, 2005.

Sandoval, Marta. “Niños con dos madres.” El Periódico, June 14, 2009. Accessed May 10, 2011. http://www.elperiodico.com.gt/es/20090614/portada/103825/

Sanford, Victoria. “Buried Secrets: Truth and Human Rights in Guatemala.” United States: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003.

Sas, Ángel and Kenia Reyes. “Salen libres implicados en robo de niño: Fueron beneficiados por una medida sustitutiva legal.” El Periódico, July 20, 2007. Accessed May 10, 2011. http://www.elperiodico.com.gt/es/20070720/actualidad/41782/

Satyanarayana, Megha. “Lawsuit accuses adoption agency of racketeering, fraud.” Detroit FREE PRESS, December 28, 2008.

Schemo, Diana Jean. “THE BABY TRAIL: A special report, Adoptions in Paraguay: Mothers Cry Theft.” The New York Times, March 19, 1996. Accessed May 11, 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/1996/03/19/world/the-baby-trail-a-special-report-adoptions-in-paraguay-mothers-cry-theft.html?pagewanted=print

Schirmer, Jennifer. The Guatemalan Military Project: A Violence Called Democracy. United States: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998.

Schlesinger, Stephen, et al. Bitter Fruit: The Story of the American Coup in Guatemala, Revised and Expanded. United States: Harvard University David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies, 1982.

Schuster Institute for Investigative Journalism’s Gender & Justice Project. “Capsule History of International Adoption.” Last Modified February 23, 2011. http://www.brandeis.edu/investigate/gender/adoption/history.html

Seelke, Clare Ribando.Gangs in Central America.” Congressional Research Service Specialist in Latin American Affairs.  January 11, 2010.

Seijo, Lorena. “Embajada de EE. UU. “aprobó” adopción de niñas raptadas.” La Prensa Libre, February 4, 2008.

–. “Where are our children?” (“¿Dónde Están Nuestros Hijos?”) La Prensa Libre, November 25, 2007. http://www.prensalibre.com/pl/2007/noviembre/25/lectura_nac.html # 188800.

Serrill, Michael S., Constable, Anne, and Ricardo, Chavira. “Going Abroad to Find a Baby.” TIME magazine, October 21, 1991. Accessed May 11, 2011. http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,974083,00.html

Sherwell, Phillip. “Mother reunited with baby stolen for adoption.” The Sunday Telegraph (London), July 27, 2008.

Singh, Susheela, Elena Prada, and Edgar Kestler. “Induced Abortion and Unintended Pregnancy in Guatemala.” Guttmacher Institute. September 3, 2006. Accessed May 13, 2011. http://replay.web.archive.org/20080820233442/http://www.alanguttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3213606.html

Smith, SSA J. Perry and Kim A. Robson. “The Rise of New Religions in Latin America and their Impact on Society.” Inter-American Defense College. Washington, D.C. May, 1994.

Solinger, Rickie. Beggars and Choosers: How the Politics of Choice Shapes Adoption, Abortion, and Welfare in the United States. United States: Hill and Wang, 2001.

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“The Elders Said Go: Brigadier General José Efraín Ríos Montt.” TIME Magazine. April 5, 1982. Accessed May 11, 2011. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,921160,00.html

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Thomas, Jeffrey. “U.S. Says International Adoption Important for Children in Need.” The U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of International Information Programs. December 17, 2009. Accessed May 10, 2011. http://www.america.gov/st/peopleplace-english/2009/December/200912171352431CJsamohT0.6776174.html.

Tinsley, Anna M. “Adoptive parents are still waiting on Guatemalan authorities.” The Texas Star Telegram, December 8, 2008. Accessed May 13, 2011. http://www.star-telegram.com/804/v-print/story/1079877.html

Tobik, Amy K.D. “Finding a home.” The Voice/ The Seminole Voice, May 16, 2008. Accessed May 13, 2011. http://www.golfest.com/Seminole_Voice/article.asp?ID=475

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“UNICEF, Guatemalan Adoption, and the Best Interests of the Child: An Informative Study.” Families Without Borders. November 2003.

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USAID. “Dirty money, Former Gang Member Gets Second Chance.” Accessed May 13, 2011 http://www.usaid.gov/stories/guatemala/fp_guatemala_gangs.html

US Department of Justice. “Justice Department Indicts Employee of Adoption Agency on Visa Fraud Charges.” January 8, 2004.

US Department of State. “Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000: Trafficking in Persons Report.” 2004. Accessed May 11, 2011. http://classic-web.archive.org/web/20040625213226/http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/33614.pdf

——. “Trafficking in Persons Report 2008 – Guatemala.” UNHCR Refworld. June 4, 2008. Accessed May 10, 2011. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/484f9a1a9.html

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——. “2005 Crime Incidents Involving Foreigners” Accessed May 10, 2011. http://guatemala.usembassy.gov/2005_incidents.html

——. “2006 Crime Incidents Involving Foreigners.” Accessed May 10, 2011. http://guatemala.usembassy.gov/2006_incidents.html

Valdez, Sandra. “Emiten reglamento para adopciones.” La Prensa Libre, July 13, 2010. Accessed May 10, 2011. http://www.prensalibre.com/noticias/Emiten-reglamento-adopciones_0_297570257.html.

——. “Adopciones foráneas siguen en un impasse.” La Prensa Libre, December 22, 2010. Accessed May 13, 2011. http://www.prensalibre.com/noticias/Adopciones-foraneas-siguen-impasse_0_394760546.html

——. “Aumentan rescates de niños por medio de Ley Alba-Keneth.” La Prensa Libre, December 25, 2010.

Valladares, Danilo. “Foreign Adoptions Are Back – Along with the Doubts.” IPS Inter Press Service, May 11, 2010. Accessed May 11, 2011. http://www.ipsnews.net/print.asp?idnews=51378

Vásquez, Byron Rolando. “Cuatro supuestos Zetas dejados en libertad De doce delitos que les imputaban, sólo serán procesados por dos.” El Diario de Central América, June 23, 2009. Accessed May 13, 2011. http://liveweb.web.archive.org/http://dca.gob.gt:85/archivo/090623/nacional4-3.html

——. “CSJ retira inmunidad a juez de Escuintla.” Siglo XXI. May 28, 2010. Accessed May 10, 2011. http://www.s21.com.gt/node/11783

“Violencia contra el sistema de justicia: el aparato estatal sigue postergando la prevención y el combate.” Fundación Myrna Mack. July 2005, Guatemala.

Webber, Marlene. As If Kids Mattered: What’s Wrong in the World of Child Protection and Adoption. Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1998.

Welch, Amanda. “Oviedo agency faces multiple complaints.” The Seminole Chronicle, December 3, 2008. Accessed May 11, 2011. http://www.seminolechronicle.com/vnews/display.v?TARGET=printable&article_id=4937184fab40b

Wilkinson, Daniel. “Silence on the Mountain: Stories of Terror, Betrayal, and Forgetting in Guatemala (American Encounters/Global Interactions).” United States: Houghton-Mifflin, 2002.

Wittner, Kelly. “Curbing Child-Trafficking in Intercountry Adoptions: Will International Treaties and Adoption Moratoriums Accomplish the Job in Cambodia?” Pacific Rim Law and Policy Journal, March 2003. Accessed August 10, 2011. http://digital.law.washington.edu/dspace-law/bitstream/handle/1773.1/735/12PacRimLPolyJ595.pdf?sequence=1

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Zamora, Juan M. Castillo. “Arlene, Anyelí y Heidy, causa de la lucha de Cruz.” El Periódico, July 24, 2009. Accessed May 10, 2011. http://www.elperiodico.com.gt/es/20090724/pais/108141/?tpl=54

——. “MP solicita antejuicio contra Juez de Escuintla por varios delitos.” El Periódico, June 14, 2009. Accessed May 11, 2011. http://www.elperiodico.com.gt/es/20090714/pais/106846/

Zarembo, Alan. “A Place To Call Home: The Anger, Tears And Frustrating Runarounds Of A Guatemalan Adoption Case.” Newsweek, July 15, 2002.

Zelada, Rodolfo. “Condenan a cuatro mujeres por robar niño.” Agencia AFP, La Hora, April 18, 2009. Accessed May 10, 2011. http://www.lahora.com.gt/notas.php?key=47469&fch=2009-04-18

 

 

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Thank you to Brandeis University student and Schuster Institute for Investigative Journalism research assistant Sean Petterson for his help formatting this bibliography.

1 Comments
  1. Dear Ms. Siegal,

    Pepperdine University is hosting a conference in February on intercountry adoption. If you are interested, please visit our website for more details: http://law.pepperdine.edu/nootbaar/annual-conference/intercountry-adoption/.

    We would be honored if you would join us.

    All the best.

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